A Guide to Chicago Referencing

What is Chicago referencing?

Details of The Chicago Manual of Style important documentations methods are:

1. Notes and bibliography
2. Author-date

These two styles are chosen due to various factors such as the subject matter and the state of the sources cited as different scholars or professionals favour different systems.

Humanities, literature, history, and those in arts prefer using the notes and bibliography method. This method gives a detail description and information about its bibliography in notes and sometimes a bibliography. Different sources including the hidden ones are what make up and link to the author-date method.

For the author-date style, those who normally make use of it are those in physical, social sciences and natural. What is common in this style is the brief citing of sources in the work, which is always in parentheses accompanied by the author’s last name and the date of publication. There is always a full list of references at the end of the work where the full details of the information source are written.

Notes and bibliography system

In the notes and bibliography styles, there are two methods usually employed in referencing

  • At the end of the work, insert a full bibliography.
  • At the end of the work, leave it without a bibliography.
    Citing and referencing – with a bibliography.

1. In the process of citing another author’s work in your text, make sure that you insert a small subscript number (eg1) to represent an endnote (or footnote).

2. Inserting a full reference in the endnote (or footnote). A full reference which appears in a footnote or endnote is written in a different form to that of a full reference in a bibliography.


From the internet, the type of style used in Chicago for the notes and bibliography:

  • Articles, with no bibliography but with endnotes
    (Source: Browns University).

General Principles

  • Footnotes and endnotes

The major difference between footnotes and endnotes is that you must insert footnote at the foot of the page as that of your citation while an endnote is always inserted at the end of the work (even before bibliography if there is one). The styles and formatting are all the same for both footnotes and endnotes.

  • Titles can also be in italics or underlined

You can decide to use italics or underlined form for your reports, journals, book titles and other Medias. Just make sure that any style that you choose is what you must use all through your work


Ibid. a short Latin word for ibidem, which translates to the word “the same place” in English. Ibid. is normally used in directing readers to the reference used in the footnotes (or endnotes) which appeared formerly.

Example use of Ibid. in footnotes:

1. Frank Lentricchia and Thomas McLaughlin, Critical Terms for Literary Study (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1990), 104-7.
2. Ibid.
3. Ibid., p. 209.